About concrete
Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after water, and is the most widely used building material. Its usage worldwide, ton for ton, is twice that of steel, wood, plastics, and aluminum combined. Globally, the ready-mix concrete industry, the largest segment of the concrete market, is projected to exceed $600 billion in revenue by 2025. This widespread use results in a number of environmental impacts. Most notably, the production process for cement produces large volumes of greenhouse gas emissions, leading to net 8% of global emissions. Other environmental concerns include widespread illegal sand mining, impacts on the surrounding environment such as increased surface runoff or urban heat island effect, and potential public health implications from toxic ingredients. Significant research and development is being done to try to reduce the emissions or make concrete a source of carbon sequestration, and increase recycled and secondary raw materials content into the mix to achieve a circular economy. Concrete is expected to be a key material for structures resilient to climate disasters, as well as a solution to mitigate the pollution of other industries, capturing wastes such as coal fly ash or bauxite tailings and residue.

Concrete

gray concrete wall with shadow
gray concrete wall with shadow
gray concrete floor
gray concrete floor
white painted wall
white painted wall
Portrait of a young worker in a hard hat at a large waste recycling factory. The engineer monitors the work of machines and other equipment.
Portrait of a young worker in a hard hat at a large waste recycling factory. The engineer monitors the work of machines and other equipment.
grayscale photo of concrete stairs
grayscale photo of concrete stairs
gray spiral artwork
gray spiral artwork
gray building
gray building
3D Render of Building Exterior
3D Render of Building Exterior
gray concrete wall during daytime
gray concrete wall during daytime
person in black shoes standing on brown sand
person in black shoes standing on brown sand
black and white polka dot textile
black and white polka dot textile
white concrete wall with hole
white concrete wall with hole
modern living interior design concept. 3d rendering idea.
modern living interior design concept. 3d rendering idea.
black concrete frame
black concrete frame
grayscale photo of concrete stairs
grayscale photo of concrete stairs
gray wall paint
gray wall paint